The term Yao refers to a non-sinitic speaking, southern "Chinese" people who originated in central China, south of the Yangzi River. Despite categorization by Chinese and Western scholars of Yao as an ethnic minority with a primitive culture, it is now recognized that not only are certain strains of religious Daoism prominent in Yao ritual traditions, but the Yao culture also shares many elements with pre-modern official and mainstream Chinese culture. This book is the first to furnish a history-part cultural, part political, and part religious-of contacts between the Chinese state and autochthonous peoples (identified since the 11th century as Yao people) in what is now South China. It vividly details the influence of Daoism on the rich history and culture of the Yao people. The book also includes an examination of the specific terminology, narratives, and symbols (Daoist/ imperial) that represent and mediate these contacts. "This is an important piece of work on a little studied, but very interesting subject, namely, Taoism among the non-Sinitic peoples of South China and adjoining areas." - Professor Victor Mair, University of Pennsylvania "This brilliant study by Eli Alberts has now cleared away much of the cloud that has been caused by previous, mostly impressionistic scholarship on the "Dao of the Yao." - Professor Barend J.ter Haar, Leiden University
Born in 1937 just three years before the German invasion of Holland on May 10th 1940. The big surprise is how one remembers all the war time traumatic experiences of childhood! The intrigues of secrecy and self preservation coupled with a child's natural delight in the world around him. These were the elements of a normal life for this country boy from Holland. "Sy" shares keen observations of diverse human attitudes, as well as the dynamics of warfare occurring in his own backyard. Always a people-person and interested in machinery. As a young child Nazi occupied and war torn Holland was the only world he knew. His story begins in Snelleveld a small community his parents had moved to from Friesland for his father "Sybe" to take over a job to manage a dairy farm! Baukje, his mother, was a bright and talented lady. Among her talents was her green thumb, both with flowers (with which she always surrounded herself and her family) and vegetables. The vegetables helped them live through times of hunger/starvation. The calm quiet life style came to a thundering halt on May 10th 1945, as German planes flew tree top level for the express purpose of terrorizing the population and boy it worked! In 1943 they moved to Waardenburg area much closer to "Sybe's" work and closer to all kinds of action. For a starter dual railroad tracks with trains served as targets for allied planes. For defense the Germans had lots of Ack-Ack both 88s and heavy machine guns. Which made for what seemed safe entertainment for Sy, who spent many hours watching P51 and P38 and his all time favorite P47. Attacking whatever target presented itself. Another interesting item was the German wood burning trucks described in the book. The V1 rockets were a daily concern as they had a tendency to malfunction coming down causing a big explosion. The V2 flew overhead without concern for the local population. On New Years day January 1st 1945 the Byl house was totally destroyed by English bombers. Causing them to have to move in with not so willing neighbors, creating problems for all, especially 8 yr old Sy as the hosts had never had kids! When the war ended in May 1945, "Sybe" created a new home out of an old German barrack. The the dream of having his own dairy started growing in "Sybe." So thoughts of immigrating started bubbling up, as starting one's own dairy in postwar socialist Holland was out of the question. October 1948 the New Amsterdam boat, took the Byl's to Rockford Michigan, USA where "Sybe" would manage a neat dairy. This is an exciting adventure for 11yr old Sy, who can't wait to get his hands on the tractors and other equipment learning English had some adventuresome moments, but all in all very exciting. His formal education stopped at the 8th grade much to his disgust, Heit needed him on the farm as Pieter got drafted! Sy felt very much cheated, but thanks to the US Army he learned self reliance, and self confidence. Because they taught him if he applied himself and studied hard he could compete with most anybody, thanks to the US Army.
The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army.
This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.
Transportation problems belong to the domains mathematical program- ming and operations research. Transportation models are widely applied in various fields. Numerous concrete problems (for example, assignment and distribution problems, maximum-flow problem, etc. ) are formulated as trans- portation problems. Some efficient methods have been developed for solving transportation problems of various types. This monograph is devoted to transportation problems with minimax cri- teria. The classical (linear) transportation problem was posed several decades ago. In this problem, supply and demand points are given, and it is required to minimize the transportation cost. This statement paved the way for numerous extensions and generalizations. In contrast to the original statement of the problem, we consider a min- imax rather than a minimum criterion. In particular, a matrix with the minimal largest element is sought in the class of nonnegative matrices with given sums of row and column elements. In this case, the idea behind the minimax criterion can be interpreted as follows. Suppose that the shipment time from a supply point to a demand point is proportional to the amount to be shipped. Then, the minimax is the minimal time required to transport the total amount. It is a common situation that the decision maker does not know the tariff coefficients. In other situations, they do not have any meaning at all, and neither do nonlinear tariff objective functions. In such cases, the minimax interpretation leads to an effective solution.
A Companion to Mediterranean History presents a wide-ranging overview of this vibrant field of historical research, drawing together scholars from a range of disciplines to discuss the development of the region from Neolithic times to the present.
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