Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines describes the production and characterization of biodiesel. The book also presents current experimental research work in the field, including techniques to reduce biodiesel's high viscosity. Researchers in renewable energy, as well as fuel engineers, will discover a myriad of new ideas and promising possibilities.
The 20th century has finished, the century when surgery took huge steps forward thanks to progress in technology. Now we have entered the "century of biotechnologies", which will not only generate progress in surgery, but also lead to a real "cultural revolution" that will completely change approaches to solving different problems in medicine. The aim of this book is to bring surgeons closer to biotechnologies and to overcome the cultural gap dividing them from these new approaches. Biotechnologies are already proposed and used at different levels in surgical practice: in diagnostic technique, enabling practitioners to identify diseases at an early stage and follow their molecular modification over time; and in tissue engineering, where the use of "smart scaffolds" offers a possible answer to increasing demand for biocompatible tissues and organs in transplantation surgery. This volume focuses on the emerging field of stem cells, analyzing both their role as possible players in originating and perpetuating cancer - "cancer stem cells" - and, conversely, their extraordinary therapeutical potential. An additional section is dedicated to the evaluation and application of derived molecular factors that can enhance the physiological processes that are fundamentally important in surgery, such as hemostasis and wound healing. Surgeons have always been technologists, in the sense that since surgery began they have always needed technology, beginning with a scalpel and surgical instruments. They have always cooperated with technologists. However, in the new century, the first one of the millennium, a rapid increase in knowledge that is outside the realm of the surgeon's traditional technological training is imposing itself - hence the aim of this book. It is now urgent to encourage surgeons to embrace this knowledge (biotechnology) with confidence. By its very nature, biotechnology is completely different from the technologies used so far, because it escapes the senses of sight and touch, which up to now have been the essence of the surgeon's work. The cellular and molecular dimensions of biotechnologies are still far removed from most of the recent advances in modern surgical techniques. A common language between surgeons and biotechnologists will create further, revolutionary, progress in surgical sciences in the twenty-first century.
Phenomenology of Diesel Combustion and Modeling Diesel is the most efficient combustion engine today and it plays an important role in transport of goods and passengers on land and on high seas. The emissions must be controlled as stipulated by the society without sacrificing the legendary fuel economy of the diesel engines. These important drivers caused innovations in diesel engineering like re-entrant combustion chambers in the piston, lower swirl support and high pressure injection, in turn reducing the ignition delay and hence the nitric oxides. The limits on emissions are being continually reduced. The- fore, the required accuracy of the models to predict the emissions and efficiency of the engines is high. The phenomenological combustion models based on physical and chemical description of the processes in the engine are practical to describe diesel engine combustion and to carry out parametric studies. This is because the injection process, which can be relatively well predicted, has the dominant effect on mixture formation and subsequent course of combustion. The need for improving these models by incorporating new developments in engine designs is explained in Chapter 2. With "model based control programs" used in the Electronic Control Units of the engines, phenomenological models are assuming more importance now because the detailed CFD based models are too slow to be handled by the Electronic Control Units. Experimental work is necessary to develop the basic understanding of the pr- esses.
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