The Ottoman Army had a significant effect on the history of the modern world and particularly on that of the Middle East and Europe. This study, written by a Turkish and an American scholar, is a revision and corrective to western accounts because it is based on Turkish interpretations, rather than European interpretations, of events. As the world's dominant military machine from 1300 to the mid-1700's, the Ottoman Army led the way in military institutions, organizational structures, technology, and tactics. In decline thereafter, it nevertheless remained a considerable force to be counted in the balance of power through 1918. From its nomadic origins, it underwent revolutions in military affairs as well as several transformations which enabled it to compete on favorable terms with the best of armies of the day. This study tracks the growth of the Ottoman Army as a professional institution from the perspective of the Ottomans themselves, by using previously untapped Ottoman source materials. Additionally, the impact of important commanders and the role of politics, as these affected the army, are examined. The study concludes with the Ottoman legacy and its effect on the Republic and modern Turkish Army.
This is a study survey that combines an introductory view of this subject with fresh and original reference-level information. Divided into distinct periods, Uyar and Erickson open with a brief overview of the establishment of the Ottoman Empire and the military systems that shaped the early military patterns. The Ottoman army emerged forcefully in 1453 during the siege of Constantinople and became a dominant social and political force for nearly two hundred years following Mehmed's capture of the city. When the army began to show signs of decay during the mid-seventeenth century, successive Sultans actively sought to transform the institution that protected their power. The reforms and transformations that began frist in 1606successfully preserved the army until the outbreak of the Ottoman-Russian War in 1876. Though the war was brief, its impact was enormous as nationalistic and republican strains placed increasing pressure on the Sultan and his army until, finally, in 1918, those strains proved too great to overcome. By 1923, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk emerged as the leader of a unified national state ruled by a new National Parliament. As Uyar and Erickson demonstrate, the old army of the Sultan had become the army of the Republic, symbolizing the transformation of a dying empire to the new Turkish state make clear that throughout much of its existence, the Ottoman Army was an effective fighting force with professional military institutions and organizational structures.
Born in 1937 just three years before the German invasion of Holland on May 10th 1940. The big surprise is how one remembers all the war time traumatic experiences of childhood! The intrigues of secrecy and self preservation coupled with a child's natural delight in the world around him. These were the elements of a normal life for this country boy from Holland. "Sy" shares keen observations of diverse human attitudes, as well as the dynamics of warfare occurring in his own backyard. Always a people-person and interested in machinery. As a young child Nazi occupied and war torn Holland was the only world he knew. His story begins in Snelleveld a small community his parents had moved to from Friesland for his father "Sybe" to take over a job to manage a dairy farm! Baukje, his mother, was a bright and talented lady. Among her talents was her green thumb, both with flowers (with which she always surrounded herself and her family) and vegetables. The vegetables helped them live through times of hunger/starvation. The calm quiet life style came to a thundering halt on May 10th 1945, as German planes flew tree top level for the express purpose of terrorizing the population and boy it worked! In 1943 they moved to Waardenburg area much closer to "Sybe's" work and closer to all kinds of action. For a starter dual railroad tracks with trains served as targets for allied planes. For defense the Germans had lots of Ack-Ack both 88s and heavy machine guns. Which made for what seemed safe entertainment for Sy, who spent many hours watching P51 and P38 and his all time favorite P47. Attacking whatever target presented itself. Another interesting item was the German wood burning trucks described in the book. The V1 rockets were a daily concern as they had a tendency to malfunction coming down causing a big explosion. The V2 flew overhead without concern for the local population. On New Years day January 1st 1945 the Byl house was totally destroyed by English bombers. Causing them to have to move in with not so willing neighbors, creating problems for all, especially 8 yr old Sy as the hosts had never had kids! When the war ended in May 1945, "Sybe" created a new home out of an old German barrack. The the dream of having his own dairy started growing in "Sybe." So thoughts of immigrating started bubbling up, as starting one's own dairy in postwar socialist Holland was out of the question. October 1948 the New Amsterdam boat, took the Byl's to Rockford Michigan, USA where "Sybe" would manage a neat dairy. This is an exciting adventure for 11yr old Sy, who can't wait to get his hands on the tractors and other equipment learning English had some adventuresome moments, but all in all very exciting. His formal education stopped at the 8th grade much to his disgust, Heit needed him on the farm as Pieter got drafted! Sy felt very much cheated, but thanks to the US Army he learned self reliance, and self confidence. Because they taught him if he applied himself and studied hard he could compete with most anybody, thanks to the US Army.
An excerpt from the beginning of
Following the great success of our guides covering Standard and Narrow Gauge Railways throughout Britain, we are publishing this new guide which focuses on Miniature Railways with a gauge of 7 and a quarter inches or less. With detailed directions, opening times and news about steam working (where applicable) combined with photographs and a wealth of other information, this is an essential buy not only for railway enthusiasts but for anyone looking for a good day out - especially with children.
This 1911 work, by one of the best-known newspapermen and writers of the day, is a lyrical and engrossing account of the peoples and places of the northern reaches of the Sceptered Isle, from its Celtic and Pictish tribal origins, through the Roman occupation, and to the Jacobite uprising of the 18th century. With a sly, dry wit that will enthrall today's readers, author Andrew Lang delves into the decadence and corruption of the medieval kings and brings to thrilling life the intrigues and conspiracies that have shaped the true history of a much-fabled nation. AUTHOR BIO: Scottish journalist and author ANDREW LANG (1844-1912), the son of the sheriff-clerk of rural Selkirkshire, was educated at Edinburgh Academy, the Univerisites of St. Andrews and Glasgow, and Balliol College, Oxford. A contemporary and friend of Robert Louis Stevenson, he produced a stunning variety and number of volumes, including books of poetry, novels, children's books, histories, and biographies, as well as criticism, essays, scholarly works of anthropology, and translations of classical literature.
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