Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines describes the production and characterization of biodiesel. The book also presents current experimental research work in the field, including techniques to reduce biodiesel's high viscosity. Researchers in renewable energy, as well as fuel engineers, will discover a myriad of new ideas and promising possibilities.
This introductory textbook on mathematical biology focuses on discrete models across a variety of biological subdisciplines. Biological topics treated include linear and non-linear models of populations, Markov models of molecular evolution, phylogenetic tree construction, genetics, and infectious disease models. The coverage of models of molecular evolution and phylogenetic tree construction from DNA sequence data is unique among books at this level. Computer investigations with MATLAB are incorporated throughout, in both exercises and more extensive projects, to give readers hands-on experience with the mathematical models developed. MATLAB programs accompany the text. Mathematical tools, such as matrix algebra, eigenvector analysis, and basic probability, are motivated by biological models and given self-contained developments, so that mathematical prerequisites are minimal.
This book explains, compares and assesses the legal implications of Dieselgate within a range of selected jurisdictions and at the EU, international and comparative law level.The book analyses the US EPA-VW $14.7 billion dollar settlement of 2016, one of the largest civil settlements in the history of environmental law. As it shows, the Dieselgate affair has raised a host of issues concerning corporate and social responsibility, tort liability, environmental liability, contractual defective products, warranty, and false environmental claims in a range of jurisdictions. Issues like repurchasing or retrofitting cars from consumers and making direct payments to consumers through car buy-backs and compensation are analysed. Further, the book relates how Dieselgate has also contributed to the discussion about the introduction of more effective collective measures of redress for consumers, such as class actions, in Germany, France, Italy and the UK.The book subsequently reviews the criminal offences Volkswagen is currently confronted with in Germany, France and Italy, i.e. fraud and manipulation of capital markets (by belatedly providing shareholders with essential information relevant for the share value), and, potentially, environmental crimes. It demonstrates how Dieselgate has sparked new debates in Germany, Italy, France and the UK about the need to introduce enterprise liability for organised crimes, lack of compliance and control structures, and intentional violations of the law.Lastly, the book discusses how EU law has sought to respond to Dieselgate and thus investigates the controversial EU Regulation No. 2016/646 introducing a "temporary conformity factor" of 2.1 (equivalent to a 110% increase on the current limit) to be applied for NOx in the new RDE testing cycle, and the works of the EU committee of inquiry into Emissions Measurements in the Automotive Sector (EMIS).
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